3 MRO Risk Analysis
3 MRO Risk Analysis
3.1 Planners will have various risk analysis tools available to them. It is not the purpose of this introductory paper to propose particular tools or methods. Examples may be found in the supporting literature, and general guidance is available in the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual, Volume I appendix L. Here we will consider only the initial stages of the analysis process.
3.2 It is important to remember that a maritime mass rescue operation may result from a number of different causes. We are not only considering passenger ship accidents, for example. The effects are more important than the cause. MROs are such that, whatever their cause, there are aspects of the response which will be similar or the same – the recovery of people, their landing and care at places of safety, etc – and planning can and should be generic as a result.
3.3 That said, analysis will tend to show that there are areas of slightly enhanced risk. Passenger ship accidents are more likely to occur on a busy ferry route where there is crossing traffic, for example; and airports whose runways end at or near the sea are more likely to see a ditching incident. Some areas present special risks: the cruise trade in areas remote from SAR facilities, for example (see guidance paper 2.8); or places where seasonal flooding is a known hazard.
3.4 Such analyses of enhanced risk should result in enhanced planning. On a ferry route it makes obvious sense to include the ferry operators in the planning, training and exercise phases. Not only are their ships a possible source of a mass rescue operation, they are also a major potential SAR resource, helping to fill the MRO 'capability gap'. Similarly, port authorities should be involved in maritime MRO planning in their locality, as should seaside airport authorities and offshore industries. So should response organisations in areas known to be prone to natural disaster. The cruise industry must play a major part in planning for accidents in remote areas their ships visit; and so on.
3.5 The MRO 'capability gap' is a very important factor: see guidance paper 1.4. Mapping available SAR facilities is an essential part of the risk analysis process.
3.6 An MRO may occur anywhere. SAR authorities – 'SAR Coordinators', as defined in the IAMSAR Manual – should initiate generic response planning if it is not already being done. Particular risks should be identified in the risk analysis stage of such planning, and, if possible, specific resources and responses should be identified too and incorporated in the MRO plans.